|ANTIGUA||AND BARBUDA N/A|
|ARGENTINA||Argentina was to legalize surrogacy through the reformation of their civil code. 1 However, there have been reports that this was dismissed in April of 2013. 2 In June of 2013, an Argentinian court ruled that a couple was the legal parents of a child born through surrogacy. 3 Altruistic surrogacy has been permitted. 4|
|ARMENIA||Surrogacy became legal in 2002. 5 A surrogate must be 20 and have had a child previously.6 Surrogacy for homosexual intended parents is prohibited.7|
|AUSTRALIA||Compensated surrogacy is prohibited while uncompensated surrogacy is permitted. 8 Uncompensated surrogacy allows the intended parents to pay for the “medical and other out of pocket expenses.”9 Advertising for a surrogate is also illegal. 10 Lastly, certain parts of Australia have implemented laws to provide for criminal penalties for those who use compensated surrogacy in countries in which it is legal. 11|
|AUSTRIA||Austria forbids gestational surrogacy according to Section 3 Paragraph 3 of the Reproductive Medicine Act. 12 It is unclear whether traditional surrogacy is permitted. 13|
|AZERBAIJAN||There are laws regarding surrogacy. 14|
|BELARUS||Surrogacy is legal both altruistic and compensated. 15|
|BELGIUM||Surrogacy is prohibited due to public policy. However, Belgian courts have recognized surrogacy contracts, which were created abroad. 16|
|BULGARIA||Bulgaria prohibits surrogacy. 17|
|BOSNIAAND HERZEGOVINA||There do not appear to be any laws regarding surrogacy. 18|
|BRAZIL||Altruistic surrogacy is permitted.19|
|BULGARIA||Surrogacy is prohibited. 20|
|CANADA||In 2004 the Canadian government approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act.21 Section 6 of the AHR prohibits compensated surrogacy. It is (1) illegal to “pay, offer to pay or advertise that they will pay a woman to be a surrogate;” (2) illegal to “accept consideration… for arranging the services of a surrogate mother, offer to make such an arrangement for consideration or advertise that arranging of such services;” (3) illegal to “pay, offer to pay or advertise to pay another person to arrange for the services of a surrogate mother;” (4) advise or persuade a woman to become a surrogate mother, or do any medical procedure to help a woman become a surrogate mother, knowing or having reason to believe that the woman is under 21 years of age.”22 If someone is found guilty of violating the law, they “could be fined up to $500,000 or jailed for up to ten years or both.”23|
|CHINA||Surrogacy is prohibited. 24|
|CROATIA||Surrogacy is prohibited. 25|
|CYPRUS||Surrogacy is legal in South Cyprus but illegal in North Cyprus. 26|
|CZECH REPUBLIC||No law regarding surrogacy.27|
|DENMARK||Compensated surrogacy is not permitted. 28|
|ESTONIA||Compensated and altruistic surrogacy is illegal.29|
|FINLAND||Compensated and altruistic surrogacy is prohibited. 30|
|FRANCE||France bans surrogacy.31|
|GEORGIA||Surrogacy is legal. 32|
|GERMANY||Germany bans surrogacy. 33 German courts have recognized legal parenthood of individuals who use surrogates in foreign countries. 34|
|GREECE||Surrogacy is legal. 35 However, it is altruistic surrogacy. 36|
|HUNGARY||Surrogacy is prohibited. 37|
|KAZAKHSTAN||Surrogacy is legal. 38|
|KENYA||There are no laws regarding surrogacy.|
|ICELAND||As of January 2013 there has been draft legislation regarding surrogacy. 40|
|INDIA||Compensated surrogacy became legal in 2002. 41 Due to controversy with intended parents abandoning their children in India, the India government is moving to have a bond posted that intended parents can financially support children that are born via Indian surrogates.42 A high court recently ruled that Indian surrogates are now entitled to pre and post natal maternity leave. 43|
|ITALY||Prohibits surrogacy. 44|
|IRELAND||There are no laws regarding surrogacy, it is currently not legal. 45|
|ISRAEL||Surrogacy was legalized in 1996 allowing an infertile heterosexual couple to procure a surrogate.46 Unlike other countries Israel requires that a surrogacy contract be “submitted to the Board for Approval of Surrogacy Agreements.”47|
|LATVIA||Surrogacy is prohibited. 48|
|LUXEMBOURG||Surrogacy was unregulated but there is a law moving forward to make it illegal. 49|
|MALTA||Surrogacy is prohibited. 50|
|MACEDONIA||There do not appear to be any laws regarding surrogacy. 51|
|MEXICO||Certain states in Mexico permit surrogacy as long as it is done altruistically; however, surrogates are being compensated for their time. 52 There has been a recent change in the Tabasco region, which was typically they most friendly to surrogacy in which the governor has prohibited the issuance of birth certificates for children born via Mexican surrogates. 53|
|MONTENEGRO||There do not appear to be any laws regarding surrogacy. 54|
|NETHERLANDS||Surrogacy is prohibited. 55|
|NEPAL||Surrogacy contracts are not recognized by Nepali law, but there are migrant workers from India who are acting as surrogates in Nepal. 56|
|NORWAY||Surrogacy is prohibited. 57|
|NEW ZEALAND||New Zealand created a National Ethics Committee on Assisted Human Reproduction in 1995, which receives applications and either approves or denies surrogacy arrangements. 58 The default is that the surrogate and her partner are the legal parents of the commissioned child. 59|
|POLAND||Poland is becoming a popular destination for surrogacy. 60 The legality of surrogacy is unclear.|
|PORTUGAL||Surrogacy is prohibited. 61|
|RUSSIA||Surrogacy is legal. 62|
|SPAIN||Surrogacy is prohibited. 63|
|SOUTH AFRICA||Altruistic surrogacy is permitted according to “Chapter 19 of the South African Children’s Act from 2005, amended 2010.”64 In order to be a surrogate a woman must have a child whom she raises, must be a South African citizen and live in South Africa. 65 One of the intended parents must be the genetic parent of the child.66|
|SWEDEN||Surrogacy is prohibited. 67|
|SWITZERLAND||Surrogacy is prohibited. 68|
|UKRAINE||Surrogacy is legal. 69|
|UNITED ARAB EMIRATES||Surrogacy is prohibited. 70|
|THAILAND||Commercial surrogacy to foreign individuals is prohibited. 71|
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