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ARGENTINA Argentina was to legalize surrogacy through the reformation of their civil code. 1 However, there have been reports that this was dismissed in April of 2013. 2 In June of 2013, an Argentinian court ruled that a couple was the legal parents of a child born through surrogacy. 3 Altruistic surrogacy has been permitted. 4
ARMENIA Surrogacy became legal in 2002. 5 A surrogate must be 20 and have had a child previously.6 Surrogacy for homosexual intended parents is prohibited.7
AUSTRALIA Compensated surrogacy is prohibited while uncompensated surrogacy is permitted. 8 Uncompensated surrogacy allows the intended parents to pay for the “medical and other out of pocket expenses.”9 Advertising for a surrogate is also illegal. 10 Lastly, certain parts of Australia have implemented laws to provide for criminal penalties for those who use compensated surrogacy in countries in which it is legal. 11
AUSTRIA Austria forbids gestational surrogacy according to Section 3 Paragraph 3 of the Reproductive Medicine Act. 12 It is unclear whether traditional surrogacy is permitted. 13
AZERBAIJAN There are laws regarding surrogacy. 14
BAHAMAS N/A
BAHRAIN N/A
BANGLADESH N/A
BARBADOS N/A
BELARUS Surrogacy is legal both altruistic and compensated. 15
BELGIUM Surrogacy is prohibited due to public policy. However, Belgian courts have recognized surrogacy contracts, which were created abroad. 16
BELIZE N/A
BULGARIA Bulgaria prohibits surrogacy. 17
BOSNIAAND HERZEGOVINA There do not appear to be any laws regarding surrogacy. 18
BOTSWANA N/A
BRAZIL Altruistic surrogacy is permitted.19
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM N/A
BULGARIA Surrogacy is prohibited. 20
BURKINA FASO N/A
BURUNDI N/A
CANADA In 2004 the Canadian government approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act.21 Section 6 of the AHR prohibits compensated surrogacy. It is (1) illegal to “pay, offer to pay or advertise that they will pay a woman to be a surrogate;” (2) illegal to “accept consideration… for arranging the services of a surrogate mother, offer to make such an arrangement for consideration or advertise that arranging of such services;” (3) illegal to “pay, offer to pay or advertise to pay another person to arrange for the services of a surrogate mother;” (4) advise or persuade a woman to become a surrogate mother, or do any medical procedure to help a woman become a surrogate mother, knowing or having reason to believe that the woman is under 21 years of age.”22 If someone is found guilty of violating the law, they “could be fined up to $500,000 or jailed for up to ten years or both.”23
CHINA Surrogacy is prohibited. 24
CROATIA Surrogacy is prohibited. 25
CYPRUS Surrogacy is legal in South Cyprus but illegal in North Cyprus. 26
CZECH REPUBLIC No law regarding surrogacy.27
DENMARK Compensated surrogacy is not permitted. 28
ESTONIA Compensated and altruistic surrogacy is illegal.29
FINLAND Compensated and altruistic surrogacy is prohibited. 30
FRANCE France bans surrogacy.31
GEORGIA Surrogacy is legal. 32
GERMANY Germany bans surrogacy. 33 German courts have recognized legal parenthood of individuals who use surrogates in foreign countries. 34
GREECE Surrogacy is legal. 35 However, it is altruistic surrogacy. 36
HUNGARY Surrogacy is prohibited. 37
KAZAKHSTAN Surrogacy is legal. 38
KENYA There are no laws regarding surrogacy.
ICELAND As of January 2013 there has been draft legislation regarding surrogacy. 40
INDIA Compensated surrogacy became legal in 2002. 41 Due to controversy with intended parents abandoning their children in India, the India government is moving to have a bond posted that intended parents can financially support children that are born via Indian surrogates.42 A high court recently ruled that Indian surrogates are now entitled to pre and post natal maternity leave. 43
ITALY Prohibits surrogacy. 44
IRELAND There are no laws regarding surrogacy, it is currently not legal. 45
ISRAEL Surrogacy was legalized in 1996 allowing an infertile heterosexual couple to procure a surrogate.46 Unlike other countries Israel requires that a surrogacy contract be “submitted to the Board for Approval of Surrogacy Agreements.”47
LATVIA Surrogacy is prohibited. 48
LITHUANIA N/A
LUXEMBOURG Surrogacy was unregulated but there is a law moving forward to make it illegal. 49
MALTA Surrogacy is prohibited. 50
MACEDONIA There do not appear to be any laws regarding surrogacy. 51
MEXICO Certain states in Mexico permit surrogacy as long as it is done altruistically; however, surrogates are being compensated for their time. 52 There has been a recent change in the Tabasco region, which was typically they most friendly to surrogacy in which the governor has prohibited the issuance of birth certificates for children born via Mexican surrogates. 53
MONTENEGRO There do not appear to be any laws regarding surrogacy. 54
NETHERLANDS Surrogacy is prohibited. 55
NEPAL Surrogacy contracts are not recognized by Nepali law, but there are migrant workers from India who are acting as surrogates in Nepal. 56
NORWAY Surrogacy is prohibited. 57
NEW ZEALAND New Zealand created a National Ethics Committee on Assisted Human Reproduction in 1995, which receives applications and either approves or denies surrogacy arrangements. 58 The default is that the surrogate and her partner are the legal parents of the commissioned child. 59
POLAND Poland is becoming a popular destination for surrogacy. 60 The legality of surrogacy is unclear.
PORTUGAL Surrogacy is prohibited. 61
RUSSIA Surrogacy is legal. 62
SPAIN Surrogacy is prohibited. 63
SOUTH AFRICA Altruistic surrogacy is permitted according to “Chapter 19 of the South African Children’s Act from 2005, amended 2010.”64 In order to be a surrogate a woman must have a child whom she raises, must be a South African citizen and live in South Africa. 65 One of the intended parents must be the genetic parent of the child.66
SWEDEN Surrogacy is prohibited. 67
SWITZERLAND Surrogacy is prohibited. 68
UKRAINE Surrogacy is legal. 69
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Surrogacy is prohibited. 70
THAILAND Commercial surrogacy to foreign individuals is prohibited. 71

1

Marcela Valente, Argentina to Legalise Surrogate Motherhood, I NTER PRESS SERVICE N EW AGENCY, Mar. 8, 2013, http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/03/argentina-to-legalise-surrogate-motherhood

2

Eilis O’Neil, Surrogacy stirs up controversy in Argentina, DW, http://www.dw.com/en/surrogacy-stirs-up-controversyin-argentina/av-17270381.

3

Alexandre Bachet, Civil Court Makes Unprecedented Ruling in Surrogacy Case, THE ARGENTINA I NDEPENDENT, Jun. 26, 2013, http://www.argentinaindependent.com/currentaffairs/newsfromargentina/civil-court-makes-unprecedented-rulingin-surrogacy-case

4

Graciela Gioberchio, Meet Argentina’s First Parents From Surrogate Pregnancy, WORLDCRUNCH, July 2, 2013, http://www.worldcrunch.com/culture-society/meet-argentina-039-s-first-parents-from-surrogatepregnancy/argentina-surrogacy-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child-in-vitro-fertilization-/c3s12539

5

Gayane Abrahamyan, Birth Rights and Concerns: Issue of surrogate birthing raises debate, ARMENIAN OW.COM, July 3, 2012, 12:16 PM, http://www.armenianow.com/society/36243/armenia_surrogate_mothers_legislation.

6

U KRAINIAN SURROGATES, Changes in Armenia surrogacy legislation, Sept. 26, 2013, 6:47 AM, http://www.ukrainiansurrogates.com/changes-in-armenia-surrogacy-legislation.

7

Gay Surrogacy, Gay Surrogacy Laws in Armenia, http://www.gaysurrogacy.net/laws/armenia (last accessed July 9, 2015).

8

Sam Everingham, Families, policy and the law, AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT: AUSTRALIAN I NSTITUTE OF FAMILY STUDIES, https://aifs.gov.au/publications/families-policy-and-law/8-use-surrogacy-australians-implications-policy-and-lawreform (last accessed June 30, 2015).

9

Id.

10

Id.

11

Id.

12

AUSTRIAN BIOETHICS COMMISSION, Reform of the Reproductive Medicine Act, July 2, 2012, http://www.bka.gv.at/DocView.axd?CobId=51083; BUSARDO ET. AL. The Evolution of Legislations in the Field of Medically Assisted Reproduction and Embryo Stem Cell Research in European Union Members, BIOM ED RESEARCH I NTERNATIONAL, 3.1, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134786/pdf/BMRI2014-307160.pdf

13

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, A comparative study on the regime of surrogacy in EU Member States, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2013/474403/IPOL-JURI_ET(2013)474403_EN.pdf

14

Legal aspects in European countries, BIOTEXCOM CENTER FOR H UMAN REPRODUCTION, http://mother-surrogate.info/legalaspects-in-european-countries/ (last accessed July 27, 2015); Surrogate motherhood fails to win Azerbaijani mentality, AZERNEWS, Dec. 23, 2014 1:30 PM, http://www.azernews.az/azerbaijan/74982.html.

15

Surrogacy in Belarus, H APPY FAMILY, http://surrogacyinfo.net/gb/law-of-surrogacy/belarus.html (last accessed July 27, 2015).

16

Patrick Wautelet, Belgian Court Recognizes Californian Surrogacy, http://conflictoflaws.net/2010/belgian-courtrecognizes-californian-surrogacy/ (last accessed June 29, 2015).

17

Carol Coulter, Why surrogacy has nothing to do with same-sex marriage, I RISH TIMES, Apr. 27, 2015, 1 AM, http://www.irishtimes.com/opinion/why-surrogacy-has-nothing-to-do-with-same-sex-marriage-1.2189717.

18

Doroteya Nicolova, Women Head East for Wombs to Rent, BALKAN I NSIGHT, Oct. 26, 2010, http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/women-head-east-for-wombs-to-rent.

19

http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402140_text

20

Surrogacy under the spotlight: How Ireland plans to handle this legal minefield, THEJOURNAL.IE, Aug. 10, 2014, 7:45 AM, http://www.thejournal.ie/surrogacy-law-ireland-1610184-Aug2014

21

Health Canada, Prohibitions related to Surrogacy, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhpmps/brgtherap/legislation/reprod/surrogacy-substitution-eng.php (last accessed June 29, 2015).

22

Id.

23

Id.

24

SINGAPORE, Surrogacy laws around the world, Aug. 5, 2014, 2:46 PM, http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/surrogacy-laws-around-the-world.

25

Nicolova, supra note 18.

26

Fertility Clinics Abroad, IVF Cyprus, http://www.fertilityclinicsabroad.com/ivf-abroad/ivf-cyprus/; Busardo, supra note

9

at 3.4.

27

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, supra note 13.

28

Id.

29

Video: Estonian woman breaks the myths surrounding surrogacy, ESTONIAN PUBLIC BROADCASTING, Nov. 7, 2014, 5:37 PM, http://news.err.ee/v/politics/society/07df116f-dde2-493f-84b8-3fd0b325e5ce.

30

Jacky Jones, Second Opinion: Surrogacy laws must put children first, I RISH TIMES, Dec. 3, 2014, 12:00PM, http://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/health-family/second-opinion-surrogacy-laws-must-put-children-first- 1.2015718.

31

Coulter, supra note 17.

32

[email protected], Surrogacy Is A New Form Of Exploitation Of Women, June 23, 2015, 4:55 PM, http://www.theleader.info/article/47700/surrogacy-is-a-new-form-of-exploitation-of-women

33

Coulter, supra note 17.

34

European Commission On Sexual Orientation Law, German Supreme Court Recognizes Same-Sex Parents after Californian Surrogacy, Jan. 11, 2015, http://www.sexualorientationlaw.eu/102-german-supreme-court-recognizessame-sex-parents-after-californian-surrogacy-germany.

35

GREEK SURROGACY I NTERNATIONAL, http://www.greeksurrogacy.com (last visited July 9, 2015).

36

Aristides N. Hatzis, The Regulation of Surrogate Motherhood in Greece, http://users.uoa.gr/~ahatzis/Surrogacy.pdf

37

Csongor Istvan Nagy, Hungary, https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3IvbBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA175&lpg=PA175&dq=surrogacy+in+hungary&source=bl& ots=ichHzRiT7Z&sig=r3tnIuyAHRF5R7gmpiPZ5xfMrPA&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=surrogacy%20in%20hungary&f=false.

38

[email protected], supra note 32

39

John Chigiti, Kenyan Law Plays Catch-Up With Surrogacy Issues, THESTAR, http://allafrica.com/stories/201504080974.html.

40

Surrogacy in Iceland: Public debate, drafting of legislation and different perspectives http://www.childhealthresearch.eu/research/add-knowledge/Stathgoengumaethrun%20a%20Islandi.pdf

41

Neetu Chandra Sharma, Poverty forces workers’ wives to become surrogacy mothers, M AIL TODAY, July 3, 2015, http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/surrogatsurrogate-mothers-ivf-centres-pregnant-women-delhi-ncre-mothers-ivfcentres-pregnant-women-delhi-ncr/1/448779.html.

42

Amrit Dhillon, India to introduce law requiring bond for surrogacy hopefuls, SYDNEY M ORNING H ERALD, July 3, 2015, http://www.smh.com.au/world/india-to-introduce-law-requiring-bond-for-surrogacy-hopefuls-20150703- ghybq9.html.

43

Mel Spencer, New surrogacy laws in India cause alarm for conservatives, July 21, 2015, GAYSTARFAMILY, http://www.gaystarnews.com/article/new-surrogacy-laws-in-india-cause-alarm-for-conservatives/ (last accessed July 27, 2015).

44

Coulter, supra note 17.

45

Carol Coulter, Why surrogacy has nothing to do with same-sex marriage, THE I RISH TIMES, July 10, 2015, http://www.irishtimes.com/opinion/why-surrogacy-has-nothing-to-do-with-same-sex-marriage-1.2189717; Surrogacy in Ireland: Where do we stand? THEJOURNAL.IE, May 17 th 2015, http://www.thejournal.ie/surrogacy-in-irelandmarriage-ref-2089158-May2015

46

STATE OF I SRAEL: M INISTRY OF H EALTH, Surrogacy in Israel, http://www.health.gov.il/English/Topics/fertility/Surrogacy/Pages/default.aspx (last accessed July 27, 2015).

47

Id.

48

GLOBAL IVF, Reproductive Laws in Latvia, http://www.globalivf.com/directory/laws/latvia

49

Surrogacy to become illegal in Luxembourg, LUXEMBURGER WORT, March 4, 2015, 12:10 PM, http://www.wort.lu/en/politics/review-underway-of-2013-draft-law-surrogacy-to-become-illegal-in-luxembourg- 54f6e7850c88b46a8ce54b1d.

50

Kim Dalli, Ban on surrogacy to stay in place, TIMES OF M ALTA, April 22, 2014, 12:01 AM, http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20140422/local/Ban-on-surrogacy-to-stay-in-place.515910

51

Nicolova, supra note 18.

52

Jo Tuckman, Surrogacy boom in Mexico brings tales of missing money and stolen eggs, THE GUARDIAN, Sept, 25, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/25/tales-of-missing-money-stolen-eggs-surrogacy-mexico.

53

Julianna Photopoulos, US couple ‘trapped’ in Mexico following surrogacy law change, BION EWS, May 11, 2015, http://www.bionews.org.uk/page_522610.asp.

54

Nicolova, supra note 18.

55

SINGAPORE, supra note 24.

56

Embassy of the United States: Kathmandu, Surrogacy in Nepal, http://nepal.usembassy.gov/service/surrogacy-innepal.html (last accessed July 10, 2015); Naomi Zeveloff, Where Do Israeli Babies Come From? Nepal. But After Quake, for How Long? FORWARD, April 27, 2015, http://forward.com/news/israel/306944/where-do-israeli-babies-come-fromnepal-but-after-quake-for-how-long/; Xavier Symons, Nepalese surrogacy unearthed, BIOEDGE, Jun. 20, 2015, http://www.bioedge.org/bioethics/nepalese-surrogacy-unearthed/11492.

57

Ruth Macklin, Variations in Regulations on Assisted Reproductive Technologies, H UFFINGTON POST, June 28, 2015, 10:09 PM, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ruth-macklin/variations-in-regulations_b_7675046.html.

58

N EW ZEALAND LAW COMMISSION, Surrogacy, http://www.nzlii.org/nz/other/nzlc/pp/PP54/PP54-4_.html#Heading1159 (last accessed July 27, 2015).

59

International Surrogacy Information Sheet, http://www.cyf.govt.nz/documents/adoption/is-information-sheetjune2011.pdf (last accessed July 27, 2015).

60

Anne Hendershoot et al. The Real Costs of the Infertility Industry, THE CATHOLIC WORLD REPORT, June 16, 2015 http://www.catholicworldreport.com/Item/3955/the_real_costs_of_the_infertility_industry.aspx ; Helier Cheung, Surrogate babies: Where can you have them, and is it legal? BBC N EWS, Aug. 6, 2014, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-28679020.

61

Coulter, supra note 17.

62

[email protected], supra note 32.

63

Id; Ali Shapiro, Surrogate Parenting: A Worldwide Industry, Lacking Global Rules, Jun. 11, 2015, http://wnpr.org/post/surrogate-parenting-worldwide-industry-lacking-global-rules#stream/0.

64

The legal aspects of surrogacy in South Africa, I NFERTILITY AWARENESS ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AFRICA, http://www.ifaasa.co.za/family-building-surrogacy-legal-aspects

65

Id.

66

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67

SVERIGES KVINN LOVVY, Surrogacy motherhood – a global trade with women’s bodies, http://sverigeskvinnolobby.se/wpcontent/uploads/2013/08/POLICY-PAPER-SURROGACY-MOTHERHOOD.pdf

68

Sophie Douez, Flourishing surrogacy business raises fears, SWISSINFO.CH, Mar. 21, 2011, 2:57 PM, http://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/flourishing-surrogacy-business-raises-fears/29791340.

69

[email protected], supra note 32.

70

Sunita Menon, Surrogacy illegal in UAE, say gynaecologists, GULF N EWS GENERAL, Mar. 8, 2006, http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/general/surrogacy-illegal-in-uae-say-gynaecologists-1.227935.

71

BBC News, Thailand bans commercial surrogacy for foreigners, Feb. 20, 2015, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/worldasia-31546717.

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